However buy online januvia metabolic disease in bearded dragons, test predictivity is never completely assured purchase januvia paypal metabolic disease 71, and treating by medication or by surgery purchase januvia 100mg on-line blood glucose 105, discharging from the hospital the test can mislead. If a clinician can start treatment despite a negative rience and knowledge of the physician. The fnal outcome depends test and not start treatment despite a positive test, the possibilities on a judicious mix of these probabilities and judgments. The prob- tree helps to visualize various possibilities and to act accordingly abilities in this fgure are positive predictivity of 85% and negative (Figure D. The prevalence of disease among those with when utility is assigned to each possible outcome. An oval indicates Patient with complaints * Some clinicians may decide to start treatment of a test negative Decision patient on the basis of the complaints alone ** Prevalence among those that have those complaints Chance Test D1: Decision D2: Decision D3: Decision Treatment Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Disease Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Chance Recovery Utility 1. Done Test positive Present Yes Full Test + treatment ① (Correctly diagnosed) Partial ① + disability D Nil (death) ① + loss of life 2. Done Test positive Absent Yes Full Test + treatment ① (Misdiagnosis) Partiala ① + disability Nila (death) ① + loss of life 3. Done Test negative Present No Full Test ② (Diagnosis missed) Partial ② + disability Nil (death) ② + loss of life 4. Not done Disease diagnosed Present Yes Full Treatment ③ (Correctly diagnosed) Partial ③ + disability Nil (death) ③ + loss of life 6. Not done Disease diagnosed Absent Yes Full Treatment ③ (Misdiagnosed) Partiala ③ + disability Nila (death) ③ + loss of life 7. Not done Disease ruled out Present No Full Nil (Diagnosis missed) Partial Disability Nil (death) Loss of life 8. Not done Disease ruled out Absent No Full Nil (Correctly excluded) Note: Unlikely scenarios of administering the treatment when the test is negative or when the diagnosis is ruled out, or of treatment not done despite positive test or despite diagnosis of the disease, are excluded. When the disease is indeed present, ent situations on the basis of the available evidence. If the evidence is not adequate, subjective probabilities based on experience are 1. When the disease is actually not present (test is false example, in the case of disease being present and treated, the proba- positive), bility of full recovery is 0. Note how the probabilities and utilities are multiplied and added The last row of the fgure shows the utility assigned to various to compute the expected beneft. Similarly, the expected beneft of no treatment when the test is Depending on predictivities, the cost involved, the probabilities positive: of various grades of recovery, and the utility assigned to various outcomes, it is possible to work out the expected beneft of different (. This takes which can help decide what action to take in the best interest of the care of decision node D1 in Figure D. Now consider the expected beneft in the situation when test is This discussion is focused on one particular application of deci- negative. When the disease happens to be present (the test is false algorithm to guide decisions about postdischarge interventions in negative), cases of heart failure and concluded that this could reduce the cost of rehospitalization by 18. When the disease is indeed not present, sion tree format for classifcation of rheumatoid arthritis. These two approaches do not consider the utility or the cost, as illustrated in our example, and are similar to the expert systems described under 1. When resources permit, examine whether a tree diagram can The expected beneft of treatment when the test is negative help minimize the role of chance in decisions and in objective assessment of the outcome for various options that can be exercised = 0. Medical Decision Making in negative Health and Medicine: Integrating Evidence and Values. Data-driven decisions for reducing readmissions for heart failure: General methodology and case study. This is based gastric ulcer using decision tree classifcation of mass spectral data. An evaluation of the decision changes, and the decision to treat or not to treat would also change tree format of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 classi- accordingly. However, the frequency in only three of and the expected beneft of no treatment them can be freely chosen; the fourth is automatically determined by the total. For K cells in a one-way contingency table, Thus, when the prevalence of disease among patients with those when the sample values have no restriction other than that the total is complaints is 70% and all other values as in this example, the fxed, the df = K − 1. In a 2 × 2 contingency table, when the row and expected beneft from treatment is more than no treatment when the test is not done. The calculations apparently look Observed 57 36 51 6 150 complex but can be implemented easily with the help of a computer- frequency based small spreadsheet. Estimating the incidence of food-borne Salmonella and will—all others will be automatically fxed. In general, in an R × C the effectiveness of alternative control measures using the Delphi contingency table (R is the number of rows and C is the number of method. Zhao Q, Yang L, Zhang X, Zhu X, Zuo Q, Wu Y, Yang L, Gao W, Li The preceding explanation is for frequencies. Recommendations for the detection, study and referral only two of these three numbers; the third is automatically fxed of infammatory low-back pain in Primary Care. When additionally, the value of the standard deviation is also fxed, it can be shown that the df’s are (n − 2). Demographic and Health Surveys The F-test, commonly used in analysis of variance, has a pair of df’s—one belonging to the numerator and the other to the denomi- Demography is the study of the human populations by statistical nator. The distribution of chi-square, t, and F depends on provides decision makers and program managers with the informa- this number, the df. A report on the a consensus in stages by gradually eliminating the isolated differ- fndings is quickly brought out so that relevance is not lost. They are asked to revise their opinion in view of the consen- The survey process is guided through procedures and manuals sus, fnally reaching a conclusion, which is generally agreeable. To be sure that data refect consensus arrived at may or may not be shared by the experts who the scenarios that they intend to describe, and that data are com- did not participate in the exercise or whose opinion was eliminated parable across countries, a number of steps are undertaken, such as after being found not in line with those of the majority. The program also collects geographic information of explore differences in expert opinion and to provide more reliable the surveyed countries. The frst step in this Delphi study was to run a workshop local infrastructure such as roads, rivers, and environmental condi- in which seven experts on Salmonella infection examined the issues tions. These experts wrote the pre- data gives a more in-depth understanding than available elsewhere cise wording to be used in the Delphi study questions and identifed for developing countries. The results of the frst and second is nearly the same in each country, the data are comparable across rounds were fed back to the participants, inviting them to revise countries also. Importantly, the process narrowed the range of estimates for the incidence of infection as experts refected 1. D Whereas fertility and mortality are directly related to health and medicine, other indicators also have a bearing on health. For example, age-sex distribution determines health needs—a predomi- nantly geriatric population has different needs than a predominantly pediatric population. As over) is expected to more than double, from 841 million people in people become aware about health, the death rate quickly starts to 2013 to more than 2 billion in 2050. Presently, the population starts expanding—this is called the early expand- about two thirds of the world’s older persons live in developing ing phase. By 2050, nearly 8 in 10 of the birth rate also relents, and the gap shrinks, although it still remains world’s older population will live in the less developed regions” .
Mobil- and long metacarpals are within the feld of overgrowth and the ring and ity is decreased and fexion contractures have developed in both digits purchase cheap januvia online diabetes type 1 new york times. Over- tion is rapidly progressive and disfguring in contrast to other Upper extremity Disproportionate gigantism of the upper forms of overgrowth cheap 100 mg januvia amex blood glucose keeps dropping. Asymmetric over- and/or limbs or may be more diffuse involving the entire growth is seen in the digits and thumb ( buy discount januvia metabolic disease for dogs. The overgrowth cartilaginous masses originating within or adjacent to the vo- deformity typically accentuates with growth and is character- lar plates of the interphalangeal joints. Pelvic and lower extremity distortion will Dermatologists also call this a connective tissue nevus. The hypertrophied, cerebriform including the mandible and may result in deafness or blind- skin on the palmar surfaces is antithetical to function. Hyperplasia of osteoid tissue with variable calcifca- The affected digits are long, angular and contain hard, im- tion produces abnormal bony ridges and soft tissue calcif- mobile masses that impinge upon joint mobility. Facial distortion is progressive and characteristic fea- distortion does not have any characteristic pattern as one or tures include a long face, down-slanting palpebral fssures, more limbs may be involved. Soft tissue calcifcation is not mandibular prognathism, open mouth, low nasal bridge, and seen early in childhood but is very common as these children anteverted nasal ala. Once the facial growth asymmetries progress through the adolescent growth spurt (. Fortunately, most joints for three reasons: obstructing soft tissue, cartilaginous of these children and adults do not have signifcant cutane- masses, and distortion of the interphalangeal joints, which ous infltration. Secondary degenerative joint changes are not as fulminant Systemic Visceral malformations and malignancies may as those seen with lipomatous types of macrodactyly. These develop later in adulthood including ovarian tumors and me- radiographic changes can usually be distinguished from other ningiomas. The skeletal Specifc diagnostic criteria have been established as a overgrowth occurs in all three dimensions, length, width and result of a workshop at the National Institutes of Health in circumference and like the facial features is rapidly progres- March 1998 . Involved carpal bones will enlarge disproportionately cifc criteria, based upon category signs A, B, or C must be and distort the remaining uninvolved structures. A single category sign in A is suffcient for a Proteus carpal bones do not appear. Either two signs in category B or three signs in the involved rays of the hand are invariably within the zone of category C are suffcient. The growth plates of these tubular bones may demon- References strate an asymmetric involvement. Carpal coalitions do not occur unless they fuse spontaneously following infamma- 1. The Proteus syn- drome: partial gigantism of the hands and/or feet, nevi, hemihyper- tory episodes. Arms and forearms have hypoplastic soft tissue trophy, subcutaneous tumors, macrocephaly or other skull anomalies musculature and limitation of motion is common. Macrodactyly, hemihypertrophy, and con- nective tissue nevi: Report of a new syndrome and review of the infltration is also seen with and without dorsal skin infl- literature. Note ulceration, infection, and a fetid odor make these children very symp- the asymmetry of the affected digits. This girl involved but only an isolated segment of the right long and left index subsequently developed ovarian cystadenomas and a massive hypertro- are overgrown. The hard fbrotic mass on the dorsal right index fnger phy of her right breast is in the subcutaneous tissue plane. Proteus syndrome: di- agnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and patient evaluation. Background In 1938 Lichtenstein introduced the term f- brous dysplasia for a developmental anomaly characterized by the replacement of the medullary canal by fbrous tissue Fig. This could in- 1969) volve a single bone or multiple bones and later would be recognized as monostotic or polyostotic fbrous dysplasia . Isolated lesions in the middle, distal, and occasionally the proximal phalanges Etiology Early embryonal postzygotic somatic activating have been reported. The radiographs show intrinsic expan- Presentation This is a rare condition in the upper extremity. Destructive, erosive changes and presents usually with two or three components of the do not predominate. Affected bones can become quite large and patients present with pain, pathologic fractures, and Lower extremity Long bones may be involved and the fe- spinal, facial and lower limb deformity. The upper limbs are mur may demonstrate a shepherd’s crook deformity with a not frequently involved. Radiographs show a typical ground glass appearance and a Spine Scoliosis and Kyphoscoliosis. Many endocrine abnormalities become evident deafness may result from expansion of these structures and later in childhood, especially in boys who have precocious impingement of one or more cranial nerves and orbital struc- puberty. Although this is an uncommon cause of enlargement of the hand, it is commonly part of the differential diagnosis of macrodactyly involving the upper limb. The cortices are thin and there is displayed premature sexual development and asymmetry of the face. Syndrome characterized by osteitis fbrosa disseminata, areas of pigmentation, and a gonadal dysfunction: further observations including the report of two cases. Fibrous bone dysplasia of the proximal pha- lanx of the middle fnger (Description of the disease picture based on a case report [in German]). The radiograph shows an expanded, ground glass consistency, distorted medullary canal, and a thin cortex with multiple perforations. The median nerve sensory territory is most Macrodystrophia lipomatosa frequently involved, with the second web space predomi- nantly affected. In severe cases enlargement of the digits is Hallmarks Digital and hand overgrowth, excessive adipose associated with deviation away from the involved interspace, tissue enlargement. The digit may be straight when both Background This has always been the most common type of sides are affected. Overgrowth of all the digital deviations commonly follow nerve branching pat- digits and the thumb may be associated with overgrowth of terns . These six hand molds are all of patients with involved in this boy with the same condition. Skeletal overgrowth was present in both metacarpals and radial side of the ring digits. The dysplastic fat extends proximally into all phalanges but there is no deviation the palm. The index and ring digits are still moderately enlarged with thickened b At one year old the digit was ablated. In the both length and circumferential width follows, ceasing only progressive type, some overgrowth is presenThat birth, but after skeletal maturity. In the early years it may be diffcult two years later there is slow, disproportionate digital and/ to differentiate static from progressive growth patterns.
Narouze order januvia 100 mg on-line diabetes oral signs, Jan Van Zundert cheap 100mg januvia with visa diabetic diet meal plan 30 days, and Maarten Van Kleef Neck pain is deﬁned as pain in the area between the base of patients attending pain clinic for neck pain cheap 100 mg januvia with amex diabetes 86, it is likely to be the skull and the ﬁrst thoracic vertebra. Risk • Pain on pressure on the dorsal side of the spinal column at factors include genetic predisposition and smoking [2 ]. The following innervated structures in the neck can be a • Pain and limitation with extension and rotation. Knowledge of the innervation of various structures in the neck is important for the interpretation of diagnostic blocks Anatomy of the Cervical Facet Joints and deciding on target-speciﬁc interventional treatment. Each facet joint has a ﬁbrous capsule and is lined by a syno- Facet Joint Syndrome (Pain Originating vial membrane. The joint is formed by the superior articular from the Cervical Facet Joints) process of one cervical vertebra articulating with the inferior articular process of the vertebrae above at the level of the Facet joint is a frequent cause of neck pain. The angulation of the between 25 and 65 % had been reported, depending upon facet joint increases caudally, being about 45° superior to the patient group and selection method [4 , 5]. In a group of transverse plane at the upper cervical level and assuming a more vertical position at the upper thoracic level. Articular branches may also arise from a communicating loop that crosses the back of the joint between the third occipital nerve and the C2 dorsal ramus [8 , 9]. Beyond the C2–C3 zygapophyseal joint, the third occipital nerve becomes cutaneous over the suboccipi- tal region. Therefore, pain derived from the C2–C3 zygapophy- seal joint can be addressed by blocking the ipsilateral third occipital nerve as it crosses the lateral aspect of the joint, and pain derived from joints below C2–C3 can be addressed by blocking the cervical medial branches as they pass around Vertebral the waists of the articular pillars above and below the cor- artery responding joint [9 ]. Dorsal ramus Biomechanics, Degeneration, Medial branch and Whiplash Injury Cervical facet joints are particularly important in sharing the Ventral ramus axial compressive load on the cervical spine along with the intervertebral disc . The facet joint and capsule are also important contributors to the shear strength of the cervical spine, and resection, displacement, or even facet capsular disruption increases cervical instability [11, 12]. There are mechanistic differences between trauma- related neck pain (whiplash-associated disorders) and degenerative neck problems. Excessive facet joint com- pression and capsular ligament strain have been implicated Fig. The facet joint and capsule are also in close proximity to the semispinalis, mul- tiﬁdus, and rotator neck muscles, and >20 % of the capsule pillars, and have a constant relationship to the bone at the area corresponds to insertion of these muscle ﬁbers into the dorsolateral aspect of the articular pillar as they are bound capsule contributing to injury with excessive muscle con- to the periosteum by an investing fascia and held in place traction as in whiplash injury [14 , 15]. This capsule also have been shown to contain nociceptive ele- area is easily identiﬁed ﬂuoroscopically where the medial ments suggesting it may be an independent pain genera- branches are safely located away from the spinal nerve tor  Facet joint degeneration also occurs in the elderly and the vertebral artery. Consequently, each typical cervical zygapophyseal Clinical Presentation joint has dual innervation, from the medial branch above and below its location [8 ]. The most common symptom with pain stemming from the The medial branches of the C3 dorsal ramus differ in cervical facet joints is unilateral pain, not radiating beyond their anatomy. The pain often has both static and dynamic waist of the C3 articular pillar similar to other typical medial components. Cervical spine rotation and retroﬂexion are branches and supplies the C3–C4 zygapophyseal joint. It curves around the lateral and then into the facet joints results in a speciﬁc radiation pattern the posterior aspect of the C2–C3 zygapophyseal joint giving (Fig. This is probably a segmental phenomenon 13 Cervical Facet Syndrome: Cervical Medial Branch Block and Radiofrequency Ablation 85 assesses movement of the upper cervical segments. Recent research C2-3 showed that local pressure, deﬁned as pain with pressure of at least 4 kg, is a predictor of success of subsequent C3-4 radiofrequency treatment . C4-5 C5-6 C6-7 • When the neck pain is accompanied by radiation to the shoulder region, shoulder pathology should be excluded. Imaging Plain radiography of the cervical spine will show the degen- erative changes and may exclude tumor or fracture. With progressing age degenerative changes are more fre- quently seen: 25 % at the age of 50 up to 75 % at the age of 70 . Degenerative changes of the cervical spinal col- umn can be found in asymptomatic patients, indicating that degenerative changes do not always cause pain. The radiation pat- presentation and imaging, may be conﬁrmed by performing tern is not distinctive for facet problems but can indicate the a diagnostic block. In daily clinical practice, we consider a • Full neurological examination (sensory, motor, reﬂexes, diagnostic block successful if more than 50 % pain reduction and gait) is necessary to exclude radiculopathy or other is reported [22, 23 ]. We prefer medial branch block over an intra-articular • Cervical spine range of movements should be carefully injection, because it is not always technically possible tested: ﬂexion and extension, lateral ﬂexion, and rotation to position a needle into the facet joint and even a small (in both maximal ﬂexion and extension). Rotation in ﬂexion a diagnostic block and a selection criterion for subsequent 86 S. In patients with facet pain, research and clinical experience indicate, however, that after a single block only a small percentage (4 %) of patients have no pain reduction . This means that after a single diag- nostic block, there are only very few false-negative results. In order to minimize the number of false-positives, a number of researchers have suggested that a second block should be carried out using a local anesthetic with different duration of action, e. Cervical Facet Pain Treatment and Interventions Multidisciplinary Therapy Patients usually beneﬁt the most from a multidisciplinary approach incorporating physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy (biofeedback and relaxation therapy), and the judicious utilization of interventional pain management Fig. Note the spread of the contrast inside the joint space Cervical Medial Branch Block • Cervical medial branch (facet nerve) block is indicated in • Medial branch block is easier to perform and is the appro- axial neck pain not responsive to conservative therapy and priate diagnostic test to predict the response to radiofre- with evidence of possible facet joint involvement by quency neurotomy. Cervical medial branch block is considered by Few recent systematic reviews showed the effectiveness of some as the gold standard to diagnose pain stemming percutaneous cervical facet radiofrequency ablation (neu- from the facet joints . Patients who responded steroid, a comparable pain reduction was observed in both favorably to the ﬁrst intervention received repeated interven- groups for mean duration of 14 and 16 weeks respec- tions (up to 7 interventions). During the 1-year follow-up, the mean number of after each repeat intervention for a period of 8–12 months procedures was 3. The main concept behind the posterior approach is to place the needle parallel to the nerve in order to create a Cervical Facet Intra-articular Injection large denervation lesion over the entire length of the nerve, • Cervical facet intra-articular injection has been also uti- while the lateral approach relies on the fact that blocking the lized in the diagnosis and treatment of facet joint-mediated medial branch close to the dorsal ramus, based on sensory pain (Fig. However, because of the potential serious complications associated with intravascular and intrathecal injections, only physicians with appropriate training should perform such procedures. Real-time ﬂuoroscopy with contrast injections is essential to detect intravascular injections. Recently some advocate the use of ultrasound as it may help prevent vascular pen- etrations . A report on transient tetraplegia after cervical facet joint injection, performed without imaging, indicates however the vulnerability of the cervical arteries . Intravascular injections: • The intravascular uptake of local anesthetic was thought to be responsible for false-negative diagnostic blocks [39 ]. The target point is the waist of the articular • Branches of the ascending or deep cervical artery may be pillar located in the path of a correctly placed needle. If bony resistance is encountered, the needle is then Infections and septic arthritis are very rare .
Tethered spinal cord is attached to the lipoma and displaces ahead Spine and Spinal Cord Disorders 1105 Fig cheap januvia online master card diabetes testing meters. Sagittal T2 (a purchase januvia with amex diabetes insipidus in dogs treatment cost,b) buy cheap januvia online blood glucose excursion, T1 (c,d) images show the spinal cord tethered by a large lipoma, which has connection with subcutaneous fat through the spina bifda. If the vertebral defect has a superior localisation, then the spinal cord may also protrude into the cystic cavity Meningocele is identifed as an extension of dura mater and (Fig. It usually occurs in lumbosacral or sacral Anterior sacral meningocele is defned as protrusions of dura matter through a sacral vertebral body defect into the pelvic region. Spondylography is useful in demonstrating enlargement of the vertebral canal and sacral vertebral body defects. Meningocele in the sacral spine at the caudal level of dural sac (usually 1108 Chapter 15 Fig. Subarachnoid space is protruded through spina bifda defect up to subcutaneous fat Fig. Series T2-weighted imaging (a) and T1-weighted imaging (b) reveal the protrusion of subarachnoid space, flum terminale, and spinal roots into the spina bifda defect. Tere are hydromyelitic cyst in conus and signs of tethered spinal cord Spine and Spinal Cord Disorders 1109 Fig. T1-weighted imaging (a) and T1-weighted subarachnoid space, conus of spinal cord, and spinal roots into the imaging (b) demonstrate the traumatic (during delivery) damage wide spina bifda defect Fig. T2-weighted imaging (a) and T1-weighted imaging (b) show the protrusion of subarachnoid space, partially tethered spinal cord, and spinal roots into the wide spina bifda defect with giant menin- gocele sac formation 1110 Chapter 15 Fig. T2-weighted imaging (b) and T1-weighted wide spina bifda defect with meningocele sac formation Fig. Cystic changes within spinal cord, hydrocephalus of ventricular system, and Chiari I malformation are found Spine and Spinal Cord Disorders 1111 Fig. The small bone defect (meningocele gate) with fow void efect is well visualised on T1-weighted imaging Fig. A cystic mass within retroperitoneal space into pelvic area and laterally cystic lesion displaces the psoas muscle laterally from low lumbar vertebrae. In medical literature, this process has dif- gion along the spinal roots canals (Figs. Large perineural cysts can also manifest by chronic pain syndrome in the sacral spine, especially in 15. Single cavities can be revealed, but one ventral, and dorsal roots entering intervertebral canals at most commonly multiple cystic lesions are visualised. Tere is also the term diplomyelia, which is In the thoracic spine, meningocele has lateral paravertebral complete splitting of the spinal cord at one or several spine localisation; in the sacral spine, it is located in the sacrum re- levels, with two ventral and two dorsal roots being present. The spinal root within the cystic cavity is well identifed (arrow) 1116 Chapter 15 Fig. Diastematomyelia can ease manifest during a child’s fast somatic growth (between be divided into two types (A and B), and depending on the 4 and 8 years and in the adolescent period). In 50% of cases, size of splitting and formation, of totally (type B) or partially skin stigmas, haemangiomas, focal pilosis, etc. Tis imaging modality atypically inferior location of the spinal cord conus (at or is useful for determining scoliosis accompanied by osteopa- below L2) of a stretched form, which is poorly diferentiated thology. Tethered spinal cord is mentioned spur; however, it rather poorly demonstrates the usually adjacent to the posterior wall of the vertebral canal (no associated changes in the sof tissue. It is reasonable to perform such an exami- nation in the abdomen position in order to defne mobility of 15. Cord Syndrome, or Tethering Syndrome) Tethered spinal cord syndrome results from anomalous teth- 15. Tere is bone spur that extends from L1 posteriorly Spine and Spinal Cord Disorders 1119 Fig. Sagittal T1-weighted imaging shows thin and elongated spinal cord extending all the way down into caudal lipoma Spine and Spinal Cord Disorders 1121 Fig. Axial images in T2 (d,e) and T1 (f) regimens add infor- Sagittal T2-weighted imaging (a) and T1-weighted imaging (b,c) show mation about cystic changes in tethered cord, enlarged spinal canal, thin and elongated spinal cord extending all the way down into cau- and location of terminal lipoma dal lipoma. As a rule, spondylography reveals a large-size bone de- fect of the posterior wall of the spinal canal. The risk of infectious complications is extremely high, which is why it is not recommended for this The frst mention of spinal cord tumours dates back to the type of pathology to make a diagnosis before surgery. Hamby reported 99 cases of spinal cord tumours in children, based on Tis is described as a congenital anomaly of the atlas with a world reviews. Among the frst researches works performed in partial or complete bone bridge closure above the vertebral this feld in Russia, were the papers by G. Kornyanski (1959) artery sulcus, with the latter transformed into the vertebral in which he analyzed 53 cases of spinal cord tumours in chil- artery canal (foramen acute). Romadanov (1976) Spinal Clinical symptoms may absent in this type of anomaly, Cord Tumours in which 282 observations of spinal cord tu- but they can manifest in head turning or fexion, syncope, or mours were analyzed. To defne the efect of this anomaly on ce- vided into congenital and acquired, by aetiology into infam- rebral blood fow, it is reasonable to perform an ultrasound matory, degenerative, tumoral and traumatic, and by locali- transcranial Doppler and examination of the neck vessels sation to dura mater three main categories of tumours are during head turning or fexion. Diagnosis of this anomaly is outlined: intramedullary, extramedullary–intradural, and ex- possible on lateral spondylograms. The spinal cord tumour to in- with intradural-extramedullary or extradural tumours. In tracranial tumour ratio is 1:4–1:6 in children and 1:8–1:20 young children, early-stage pain syndrome may manifest by in adults. According to statistic data, spinal cord tumour Pelvic dysfunction is marked in 50% of patients with spinal is marked in 1:1,000,000 child’s population. However, it is difcult to defne physiologi- report equal sex distribution of spinal cord tumours, others cal urination peculiarities in diferent age groups as well as show female predominance. As a rule, the Tere is reported a great variety of classifcations of spinal primary symptom of pelvic dysfunction is enuresis. Congeni- cord tumours: tal tumours ofen exhibit skin changes or stigmas, represented • Topographic: distribution by tumour localisation in the by subcutaneous lipomas, dermal sinuses, capillary haeman- spine: cervical tumours, thoracic tumours and lumbar tu- giomas, epithelial coccygeal canal, focal pilosis, pigmentation mours or depigmentation, etc. Curvature of the spine is most com- • Histological: three basic types of tumours are defned: monly revealed in the early-age groups of children, though it gliomas, neurinomas and meningiomas may occur in 25% of patients with spinal cord lesions. Tat is • Anatomic: tumour localisation to dura mater: extradural, why some authors recommend studying posture in all chil- subdural-extramedullary and intramedullary (one of the dren under examination in order to ascertain any oncologi- most popular classifcations for today) cal disease. Spinal tumours arising from vertebrae and localised in ver- syndrome—the primary clinical symptom of spinal cord tu- tebral bodies mours. The latter comprises ependymo- mas (63–65%) and astrocytomas (24–30%), more seldom Tere is also a well-known Ellsberg’s classifcation of spinal glioblastomas (7%), oligodendrogliomas (3%), and others cord tumours by their localisation to the spinal cord: dorsal (2%) (Jeanmart 1986; Norman 1987). Spinal cord tumours in children show gin, intramedullary tumours are described as benign, slowly no clinical symptoms for a long time due to the great com- growing tumours; by tumour growth and localisation, they pensatory potential of the spine and spinal cord.